## Absolute Zero

Absolute Zero also known as 0 degrees Kelvin or -273.15 degrees Celsius describes the theoretical temperature at which particles have zero thermal energy- meaning that velocity of the particles goes to zero. Thus the velocity of the particles corresponds to temperature.

Absolute Zero was, previously thought to be the temperature at which an ideal gas would decrease to zero volume. At lower temperatures the velocity of the particles is lower which corresponds to lower volume. It now finds use as the bottom of an absolute temperature scale.

The Low Temperature Laboratory in the Helsinki University of Technology, Finland reached 2 x 10^-9 degrees Kelvin in 1989.

## Google Math (with applications to physics)

The google search box can do some crazy things. One function is being a calculator. Try typing in 2+2

Basic stuff, right?

Well, it can go a bit beyond that. Next try typing in “seconds in a year”

An approximation for this, taught to me by Dr. Phil Kesten at Santa Clara University is pi * 10^7 seconds
Even more complex is typing in something like Avogadro’s number and multiplying it by the mass of a proton to get the approximate molar mass of Hydrogen

These functions were quite useful for calculations even in my physics classes. Play around with it, not everything will work, but many calculations will.